Why are there only 354 days this year? Where is the mistake?

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January 6th officially enters the December of the lunar calendar! In other words, the footsteps of the Lunar New Year of the Pig is getting closer! “Treasure” this year of the pig! Because the Jihai Year of the Pig in the lunar calendar is an average year, only 354 days!

The upcoming Jihai Year of the Pig in the lunar calendar is a normal year, with 6 large months (30 days) and 6 small months (29 days). It starts on February 5, 2019 and ends on January 24, 2020. 354 days.

After the Jihai Year of the Pig in the lunar calendar, there is a “leap April” in the lunar year of the Gengzi Rat, which has a total of 384 days.

354? 384? How many people, like the editor, always default to 365 days a year? Obviously it is the Lunar New Year, why can the number of days gap be so big? The editor hastened to make up the lesson! Ready to take you to study together!

There are currently three universal calendars in the world: solar calendar, lunar calendar and lunar calendar.

The solar calendar is based on the time interval between the sun’s two passes through the vernal equinox (that is, between the two “spring equinox” solar terms) of 1 year, called the “tropical year”, with a period of 365.2422 days, which is the current universal “Gregorian calendar”. The length of the solar calendar is 365 days in a normal year and 366 days in a leap year.

The lunar calendar is arranged according to the change cycle of the moon’s roundness, with an average of 29.5306 days per month, 1 year and 12 months, with 354.3672 days, which is about 11 days less than the solar calendar year.

In order to coordinate the number of days between the solar calendar and the lunar calendar, the lunisolar calendar, the current lunar calendar, was created. The method adopted is the “19 years 7 leap” method, that is, 7 leap years are added to the 19 lunar years. A leap year in the lunar calendar has an extra leap month, so there are 383 to 385 days in a year, while the average lunar year generally has 353 to 355 days.

The first day of the first lunar month is the beginning of the Chinese zodiac year. Specifically, in the Lunar New Year of the Pig, children born between February 5, 2019 and January 24, 2020 are all pigs.

There must be another question: What is the lunar calendar that we often talk about? Look down slowly, starting with the lunar calendar!

A long time ago, our ancestors looked up at the bright moon, and they found that the moon phases changed regularly and repeated every 29 days or so (29.5306 days to be precise).

So the ancestors called the day when the moon was completely invisible as “Shuo”, and set it as the first day (the first day of the new year), and the day with the fullest moon was called “wang”, which happened to be the fifteenth or sixteenth day. day.

A complete cycle of Shuo → Wang → Shuo is one month, sometimes 29 days (month is small), sometimes 30 days (month is large), and 12 months are called a year.

This is the calendar we originally used: the lunar calendar! But this lunar calendar, there is a problem with it!

Because the lunar calendar year is only about 354 days on average, which is 11 days less than the earth’s revolution cycle (365 days). The year on the calendar is over, and the four seasons have not yet finished. It will be July in more than ten years. Spent in Ruixue. In the agricultural society of ancient China, climate change directly guided agricultural affairs, and the days of spring ploughing and autumn harvesting were different every year, which caused great inconvenience to the people.

In order to keep the calendar in line with the cycle of the four seasons, the ancients decided to artificially increase the length of a year and set a leap month on the basis of the lunar calendar, which means that an extra month is added, forming a new calendar!

Through calculations, ancient calendarists found that setting 7 leap months in 19 lunar years can make up for the difference between the lunar calendar and the earth’s revolution period, that is, there will be a leap month about every two or three years. Among them, the month after which the leap month appears is called leap months.

The earliest record of the twenty-four solar terms comes from the book “Huainanzi” in the Western Han Dynasty, which directly reflects the changing characteristics of seasons and climate, which greatly facilitates agricultural production and people’s lives.

The twenty-four solar terms also directly determine whether a leap month is a leap month or which month is a specific leap month in a certain year. This process is called “no intercalation”. Specifically, the twenty-four solar terms are the collective term for 12 knots and 12 qi, where qi refers to “zhong qi.”

The intercalation method is between the two winter solstices. If there are only 12 months, the leap is not placed, and if there are 13 months, the leap is placed. The intercalated month starts from the “winter solstice”. When the first month without “medium gas” appears, this month is a leap month, and its name is the word “闰” in front of the previous month.

Let’s take 2017 as an example: the month after the sixth month of the lunar calendar (July 23, 2017-August 21, 2017) is a perfect escape from the Great Heat (July 22 in the Gregorian calendar) and Chushu (August 23 in the Gregorian calendar). The two middle qi only include the one solar term Liqiu (August 7th in the Gregorian calendar). Therefore, the month is a leap month, and the month sequence is the same as that of June, which is called a leap month.

According to the above algorithm, there will be two Spring Festivals in 2262! This is also caused by Runyue!

Leap first month is a rare leap month. From the 18th century to the 22nd century, there was no leap first month. In the 25th century, there was no leap month from the 28th to the 41st century. The last leap first month appeared in 1640 (the year of Gengchen) in the 17th century, and the next leap first month appeared in 2262 (the year of Renyin) in the 23rd century.

Will there be two holidays at that time? Will there be two Spring Festival Gala? Will he be two years old in a row? Is it possible to collect two lucky draws? I still have a little look forward to…

However, I am only happy for a second! I will be over two hundred years old in 2262… Wish me a long life and over two hundred years old!

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